### A Comprehensive Summary of Different Types of Resistors

The preceding table summarizes important electrical characteristics of various resistor types. There are 5 kinds being compared: carbon composition, carbon film, metal film, wire wound, and chip resistors. Skimming quickly through the visual, one can infer that there is no single resistor that tops the rest in all aspects. There is always a trade-off, consequently making the table a pivotal tool for an electronics hobbyist in making the right choice.

9 characteristics have been bluntly shown, with the last 2 rows describing advantages and disadvantages concluded from those 9 factors. In terms of accuracy and stability, wire wound resistors are the way to go, and not the carbon composition ones which happen to be the worst. Those with stringent budgets may find carbon film resistors a reasonable alternative, at the cost of a significantly high tempco.

Metal film resistors seem to balance everything, with the minor flaw of having a poor surge capacity. From personal experience, I tried drawing a high transient current from a regulator using just metal film resistors (lots and lots in parallel) and they burned easily - D'OH!! An ohmmeter check yielded a completely different readout! Better watch out for that poor surge capacity, eh?

By the way, it is worth noting that even though carbon composition resistors are infamous for inaccuracy and instability, they are able to provide a maximum resistance of 100MÎ©.

Many resistors have their ups and downs. It is up to the hobbyist to choose which befits his/her unique application.

### Calculator Techniques for the Casio FX-991ES and FX-991EX Unraveled

In solving engineering problems, one may not have the luxury of time. Most situations demand immediate results. The price of falling behind schedule is costly and demeaning to one's reputation. Therefore, every bit of precaution must be taken to expedite calculations. The following introduces methods to tackle these problems speedily using a Casio calculator FX-991ES and FX-991EX.

►For algebraic problems where you need to find the exact value of a dependent or independent variable, just use the CALC or [ES] Mode 5 functions or [EX] MENU A functions.

►For definite differentiation and integration problems, simply use the d/dx and integral operators in the COMP mode.

►For models that follow the differential equation: dP/dx=kt and models that follow a geometric function(i.e. A*B^x).

[ES]
-Simply go to Mode 3 (STAT) (5)      e^x
-For geometric functions Mode 3 (STAT) 6 A*B^x
-(Why? Because the solution to the D.E. dP/dx=kt is an exponential function e^x.
When we know the boundary con…

### Common Difficulties and Mishaps in 6.004 Computation Structures (by MITx)

Updated:
May 6, 2018
VLSI Project: The Beta Layout [help needed]Current Tasks: ►Complete 32-bit ALU layout [unpipelined] in a 3-metal-layer C5 process. ►Extend Excel VBA macro to generate code for sequential instructions (machine language to actual electrical signals).
Current Obstacles/Unresolved Decisions:
►Use of complementary CMOS or pass transistor logic (do both? time expensive, will depend on sched.
►Adder selection: Brent-Kung; Kogge Stone; Ladner Fischer (brent takes up most space but seems to be fastest, consider fan-out) [do all? time expensive, will depend on sched.)
►layout requirements and DRC errors